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Islam was spread in Europe in many ways and in the 12th century was first time mentioned Muslim community. Islam was spread to Europe quickly after establishing when Arabs fought against the Byzantine Empire. They managed to take over Constantinople twice but Byzantines managed to defend and take over control in Anatolia. That way was blocked expansion to eastern Europe.
During the 10th century Volga Bulgarians accepted Islam as their religion and qadis and Sharia law teachers were brought to Volga Bulgaria to make relation with people there and also to build mosque and a fort. There are also mentioned Rus and Muslim traders which were also converted to Islam. In 13th century Golden Horde started its conquer of Ukraine and Russia and in 14th century Mongols accepted Islam as their religion. Between 13th and 15th century more than half of European Russia and Ukraine were under the Turks and Muslim Tatars.
Islam expanded to the Balkans during 14th and 15th century when the Ottoman Empire expanded to Europe. They took Hungary in the 16th century. Their expansion to Europe ended in the Great Turkish War when the Ottoman Empire was defeated and lost most of Central Europe. Over next few centuries the Ottoman Empire lost almost all teritory in Europe and finally 1922 Ottoman Empire became Turkey after collapse.
Between 13th and 15th century Ottoman Empire was spread over Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, Hungary, Macedonia and Bosnia. During their retreats many Muslim refugees who were actually those who converted to Islam, mostly followed them. Some number was left in Croatia, Romania, Hungary and Bosnia. Population in Bosnia was mostly converted to Islam and the same happened in Albania. Northern Albania population was Roman Catholic and the Southern Albania population was Christian Orthodox. That way Islam was quickly spread to the Balkans.
The current number of Muslims in Europe is more than 53 million which includes European Union where the number of Muslims is 16 million. More than 9 million Turks living across Europe. Regions in Europe with Muslim Majority are Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Volga region and some parts of Russia. Countries between two continents Kazahstan, Turkey and Azerbaijan also have Muslim majority.
Macedonia has over 30% Muslim population, Kosovo 91%, Turkey 99%, Azerbaijan 93% and Albania 70%. Montenegro that number is one sixth of the total population while only in Moscow, Russia living over 1.5 million Muslims. Some calculations showing that the Muslim population in Europe is growing 6% every year and it is expected by 2100 that 25% of population in Europe will be Muslim.
Islam has changed in Europe making new branches of Islam and each country has different laws. In Albania polygamy is banned and hijab is not mandatory for Muslim women when they are in public. In Poland Muslim society is relatively liberal and there are a number of examples of religious tolerance. They became integrated socially and culturally with Christians who live there and some Muslim women such are women in Lipka Tatar society have equal rights with men. European Islam is trying to combine culture in Europe and Islamic principles.

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